While results vary slightly across reputable studies, the consensus is that the mean human penis, when erect, is in the range A systematic review published by Veale et al. Erect lengths in the included studies were measured by pushing the pre-pubic fat pad to the bone, and flaccid or erect girth circumference was measured at the base or mid-shaft of the penis. One study found the mean flaccid penis length to be 3. The penis and scrotum can contract involuntarily in reaction to cold temperatures or nervousness, referred to by the slang term "shrinkage", due to action by the cremaster muscle.
The same phenomenon affects cyclist and exercise bike users, with prolonged pressure on the perineum from the bicycle saddle and the straining of the exercise causing the penis and scrotum to contract involuntarily. An incorrect saddle may ultimately cause erectile dysfunction see crotch pressure for more information.
Neither age nor size of the flaccid penis accurately predicted erectile length. Stretched length has correlated with erect length in some cases. Scientific studies have been performed on the erect length of the adult penis. Studies that have relied on self-measurement, including those from Internet surveys, consistently reported a higher average length than those that used medical or scientific methods to obtain measurements. The following staff-measured studies are composed of different subgroups of the human population in other words, specific age range or race; selection of those with sexual medical concerns or self-selection that could cause a sample bias.
Similar results exist regarding studies of the circumference of the adult fully erect penis, with the measurement usually taken mid-shaft. In a study of penis size where measurements were taken in a laboratory setting, the average penis circumference when erect was Limited growth of the penis occurs between birth and 5 years of age, but very little occurs between 5 years and the onset of puberty.
Schonfeld published a penis growth curve in Age is not believed to negatively correlate with penis size. A review of the literature found two studies finding height and stretched or flaccid length to be moderately correlated, seven studies finding weak correlation for flaccid, stretched, or erect length, and two studies that found no correlation between flaccid length and height. One study found men with longer ring fingers than index fingers to have slightly longer penises. The belief that penis size varies according to race is not supported by scientific evidence. A study of men from Nigeria found that the average flaccid stretched penis length of Nigerian males is Androgens like testosterone are responsible for penis enlargement and elongation during puberty.
There are certain genes, like homeobox Hox a and d genes, which may have a role in regulating penis size. In humans, the AR gene located on the X chromosome at Xq which may determine the penis size. The SRY gene located on the Y chromosome may have a role to play. Variance in size can often be attributed to de novo mutations. Deficiency of pituitary growth hormone or gonadotropins or mild degrees of androgen insensitivity can cause small penis size in males and can be addressed with growth hormone or testosterone treatment in early childhood. Some types of micropenis can be addressed with growth hormone or testosterone treatment in early childhood.
Operations are also available to increase penis size in cases of micropenis in adults. It has been suggested that differences in penis size between individuals are caused not only by genetics , but also by environmental factors such as culture , diet and chemical or pollution exposure. Chemicals from both synthetic e. A study by the University of Ankara , Faculty of Medicine found that penile size may decrease as a result of some hormonal therapy combined with external beam radiation therapy.
Perceptions of penis size are culture-specific. The ancient Greeks believed that small penises were ideal. In Aristophanes 's comedy The Clouds , "Mr. Good Reason" gives the character Pheidippides a description of the ideal youth: Nonetheless, there are indications that the Greeks had an open mind about large penises. Penis size is alluded to in the Bible: Ezekiel Ancient Chinese legend holds that a man named Lao Ai had the largest penis in history and that he had an affair with Queen Dowager Zhao c.
The ancient Indian sexual treatise Kama Sutra , originally written in Sanskrit , probably between the second and fourth centuries AD, divides men into three classes based on penis size: In medieval Arabic literature , a longer penis was preferred, as described in an Arabian Nights tale called "Ali with the Large Member".
As a witty satire of this fantasy, the 9th-century Afro-Arab author Al-Jahiz wrote: The medieval Norsemen considered the size of a man's penis as the measure of his manliness,  and a thirteenth-century Norse magic talisman from Bergen , a wooden stave inscribed with writing in runic script , promises its wearer: It will be bigger than a man's prick and smaller than a horse's prick. During the Renaissance , some men in Europe began to wear codpieces , which accentuated their genitals. Males may quite easily underestimate the size of their own penis relative to those of others.
A survey by sexologists showed that many men who believed that their penis was of inadequate size had average-sized penises. Widespread private concerns related to penis size have led to a number of folklore sayings and popular culture reflections related to penis size. Penis panic is a form of mass hysteria involving the believed removal or shrinking of the penis, known as genital retraction syndrome. At present there is no consensus in the scientific community of any non-surgical technique that permanently increases either the thickness or length of the erect penis that already falls into the normal range 4.
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A study undertaken at Utrecht University found that the majority of homosexual men in the study regarded a large penis as ideal, and having one was linked to self-esteem. One study, Siminoski and Bain , found a weak correlation between the size of the stretched penis and foot size and height; however, it was too weak to be used as a practical estimator. There may be a link between the malformation of the genitalia and the human limbs.
At What Age Does Penis Growth Begin?
The development of the penis in an embryo is controlled by some of the same Hox genes in particular HOXA13 and HOXD13  as those that control the development of the limbs. Mutations of some Hox genes that control the growth of limbs cause malformed genitalia hand-foot-genital syndrome. In a small study conducted by University of Texas—Pan American and published in BMC Women's Health, 50 undergraduate women were surveyed by two popular male athletes on campus about their perceptions of sexual satisfaction and it was concluded that the width of a penis feels better than the length of a penis, when subjects are asked to choose between the two size was left unspecified.
It was also concluded that this may show that penis size overall affects sexual satisfaction since women chose between the two options they were given. In a cover story by Psychology Today ,   1, readers about two-thirds women were surveyed about male body image. Generally, the women polled cared more about width than men thought, and less about length than men thought, although the strength of caring for either among women showed a similar pattern.
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A study conducted at the Australian National University , published in early , showed that penis size influences a man's sex appeal, and the taller the man, the bigger the effect. A preference for taller men's larger penis size was notable. The term size queen is slang for anyone who prefers their sexual partner s to have a larger-than-average penis.
There's a fairly wide range of normal penis sizes — just as there is for every other body part. And just like other parts of the body, how a penis appears at different stages of a guy's life varies quite a bit. You wouldn't expect someone who is 11 years old to look the same as someone who's Guys normally develop at different times. Some may start developing as early as 9. Others may not start developing until 15 or even later.
The age at which a guy starts to grow varies from person to person. Growth in penis size is just one part of puberty, which also includes such changes as pubic hair development, testicular growth, muscle development, and a growth spurt. Late starters almost always catch up fine — they just reach full maturity a little later.
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Penises come in different sizes, shapes, and colors. These traits are hereditary, like eye color or foot size, and there's nothing you can do to change them. No contest: Most boys don't realize that sexual function is not dependent on penis size or that the dimensions of the flaccid penis don't necessarily indicate how large it is when erect. Parents can spare their sons needless distress by anticipating these concerns rather than waiting for them to say anything, since that question is always there regardless of whether it is articulated.
In the course of a conversation, you might muse aloud, " You know, many boys your age worry that their penis is too small.
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That almost never turns out to be the case. A doctor's reassurance that a teenager is "all right" sometimes carries more weight than a parent's. Boys' preoccupation with their penis probably won't end there. They may notice that some of the other guys in gym have a foreskin and they do not, or vice-versa, and might come to you with questions about why they were or weren't circumcised. You can explain that the procedure is performed due to parents' choice or religious custom.
About one in three adolescent boys have penile pink pearly papules on their penis: Although the tiny bumps are harmless, a teenager may fear he's picked up a form of sexually transmitted disease. The appropriate course of action is none at all. Though usually permanent, the papules are barely noticeable. Boys are considered capable of procreation upon their first ejaculation, which occurs about one year after the testicles begin to enlarge. The testicles now produce sperm in addition to testosterone, while the prostate, the two seminal vesicles and another pair of glands called Cowper's glands secrete fluids that combine with the sperm to form semen.
Each ejaculation, amounting to about one teaspoonful of semen, contains million to million sperm. Most boys have stroked or rubbed their penises for pleasure long before they're able to achieve orgasm—in some instances, as far back as infancy. A child may consciously masturbate himself to his first ejaculation.
Or this pivotal event of sexual maturation may occur at night while he's asleep. He wakes up with damp pajamas and sheets, wondering if he'd wet the bed. A nocturnal emission, or " wet dream ," is not necessarily the culmination of a sexually oriented dream. See Nocturnal Enuresis in Teens. Erections, too, are unpredictable during puberty. They may pop up for no apparent reason—and seemingly at the most inconvenient times, like when giving a report in front of the class. Tell your teen there's not much he can do to suppress spontaneous erections the time-honored technique of concentrating on the most unsexy thought imaginable doesn't really work , and that with the passage of time they will become less frequent.
Just after the peak of the growth spurt, a boy's voice box larynx enlarges, as do the vocal cords. For a brief period of time, your son's voice may "crack" occasionally as it deepens. Once the larynx reaches adult size, the cracking will stop. Girls' voices lower in pitch too, but the change is not nearly as striking. Early in puberty, most boys experience soreness or tenderness around their nipples. Three in four, if not more, will actually have some breast growth, the result of a biochemical reaction that converts some of their testosterone to the female sex hormone, estrogen.
Most of the time the breast enlargement amounts to a firm breast bud of up to 2 inches in diameter under the nipples. Occasionally, this may be more extensive, resulting in profound "gynecomastia. As you might imagine, this development can be troubling for a child who is in the process of trying to establish his masculinity.
If your son suddenly seems self-conscious about changing for gym or refuses to be seen without a shirt, you can reasonably assume that he's noticed some swelling in one or both breasts.